2nd Intermediate Period (1650 B.C.- 1549 B.C.)
Includes 15th through 17th Dynasties. The dates of any king’s rule are subjective, as rules were counted by regal years, not by era dating.
The 13th D’s grasp on power seems gradually to have slipped until, around 1650 b.c., the whole of Lower (northern) Egypt came under the rule of the Palestinian Hyksos 15th D. The full extent of their power is still the subject of debate, but there is evidence that their nominal power stretched a long way into the south, possibly embracing even Thebes for a short period.
15th Dynasty (1650 b.c.-1535 b.c.)-
Kings ? (Semqen?- 1650- ?)
? (Sakirhar- ?)
Seuserenre (Khyan- ?)
Nebkhepeshre/Aqenenre/Auserre (Apopi- 1585-1545)
? (Khamudy (1545-1535? [runs into new kingdom period])
16th Dynasty (1650 b.c.-1590ish b.c.)- While the Palestinians ruled the north, the rump of the old royal line moved south to Thebes, where it is now referred to as the 16th/17th D.
Kings ? (?- 1650-?)
Sekhemre-smentawi (Djehuty- ?)
Sekhemre-sewosertawi (Sobkhotpe VIII- ?)
Sekhemre-seankhtawi (Neferhotpe III- ?)
Sankhenre (Montjuhotepi- ?)
Swadjenre (Nebiriau I- ?)
Neferkare? (Nebiriau II- ?)
Semenre (?- ?)
Seuserenre (Bebiankh- ?)
Sekhemreshedwaset (?- ?)
Djedhotepre (Dedumose I- ?)
Djedneferre (Dedumose II- ?)
Djedankhre (Montjuemsaf- ?)
Merankhre (Montjuhotpe VI- ?)
Seneferibre (Senwosret IV- 1590 b.c. [don’t know if beginning or end of reign])
17th Dynasty (1585 b.c.-1549 b.c.)- While the Palestinians ruled the north, the rump of the old royal line moved south to Thebes, where it is now referred to as the 16th/17th D.
Kings Sekhemre-wahkhau (Rehotpe- 1585-?)
Sekhemre-shedtawi (Sobkemsaf I- ?)
Sekhemre-wepmaet (Inyotef V- ?)
Nubkheperre (Inyotef VI- ?)
Sekhemre-heruhirmaet (Inyotef VII- ?)
Sekhemre-wadjkhau (Sobkemsaf II- ?)
Senakhtenre (Taa I- 1558-?)
Seqenenre (Taa II- 1558-1553)
Wadjkheperre (Kamose (1553-1549)
Period ended when Palestinians were driven out by the kings of Thebes (the main centre of the south), who then founded the 18th Dynasty and the New Kingdom.
**Misc. everyday living facts:
**Language & Writing:
Middle Egyptian continues.
Rectangular coffins were replaced by mummy-shaped ones.
The 16th/17th D, the native Egyptian line, initiated the royal cemetery at Dira Abu’l-Naga. There, they erected what- with one exception- were to be the last kings’ pyramids to be built in Egypt. After the abandonment of pyramids by royalty, some private individuals began to place pyramids above their rock-cut chapels.
(note to self: only major period on timeline, not dynasties)