3rd Intermediate Period (1064-656 B.C.)
_ Includes 21st through 25th Dynasties. The dates of any king’s rule are subjective, as rules were counted by regal years, not by era dating. The last few years of this period run over the first few years of the Saite period- do further research as to determine cause.
21st Dynasty- 1064 b.c.-948 b.c.
Kings Hedjkheperre-setpenre (Nesibanebdjed- 1064-1038)
Neferkare-heqawaset (Amenemnesu- 1038-1034)
Kheperkhare-setpenamun (Pinudjem I- 1049-1026)- entire reign within reign of pharaohs before and after him- perhaps a minor?
Akheperre-setpenamun (Pasebkhanu I-1034-981)
Usermaetre-setpenamun (Amenemopet- 984-974)
Akheperre-setpenre (Osorkon the Elder- 974-968)
Netjerkheperre-meryamun (Siamun- 968-948)
Tyetheperure-setpenre (Pasebkhanu II- 945-940)- entire reign within reign of next pharaoh- perhaps his regent took over, hence the new dynasty?
22nd Dynasty- 948 b.c.- 715 b.c.
Kings Hedjkheperre-setpenre (Shoshenq I- 948-927)
Sekhemkheperre-setpenre (Osorkon I- 927-892)
Heqakheperre-setpenre (Shoshenq II- 895-895)- probably joint reign by son who died first.
Hedjkheprre-setpenre (Takelot I- 892-877)
Usermaetre-setpenamun (Osorkon II- 877-838)
Usermaetre-setpenre (Shoshenq III- 838-798)
Hedjkheperre-setpenre (Shoshenq IV- 798-786)
Usermaetre-setpenamun (Pimay- 786-780)
Akheperre (Shoshenq V- 780-743)
Sehetepibenre (Pedubast II- 743-733)
Akheperre-setpenamun (Osorkon IV- 733-715)
23rd Dynasty- 867 b.c.- 724 b.c.- entire dynasty included within 22nd dynasty timeframe- do further research as to determine cause.
Kings Hedjkheperre-setpenamun (Harsiese- 867-857)
Hedjkheperre-setpenre (Takelot II- 841-815)
Usermaetre-setpenamun (Pedubast I- 830-799)
? (Iuput I- 815-813)- probably joint reign by son who died first.
Usermaetre-setpenamun (Osorkon III- 799-769)
Usermaetre (Takelot III- 774-759)
Usermaetre-setpenamun (Rudamun- 759-739)
? (Iny- 739-734)
Neferkare (Peftjauawybast- 734-724)
24th Dynasty- 731 b.c.- 717 b.c.- entire dynasty included within 22nd dynasty timeframe- do further research as to determine cause.
Kings Shepsesre (Tefnakhte- 731-723)
Wahkare (Bakenrenef- 723-717)
25th Dynasty- 752 b.c.-656 b.c.- Reunification came under the Sudanese 25th D, but was followed by Assyrian invasion, and it was nearly a century before central power was definitely re-established in the form of the 26th D, also known as the Saite period.
Kings Seneferre (Pi(ankh)y- 752-717)
Neferkare (Shabaka- 717-703)
Djedkare (Shabataka- 703-690)
Khunefertumre (Taharqa- 690-664)
Bakare (Tanutamun- 664-656)
The end of the 20th Dy, economic problems and civil strife had set in, and the succeeding 3rd IP saw a split in the country just south of the Fayoum. The senior king ruled from Tanis in the delta, while the south was ruled by a series of soldier-priests based on Thebes, some of whom were proclaimed pharaohs in their own right. Reunification came under the Sudanese 25th Dy, but was followed by Assyrian invasion, and it was nearly a century before central power was definitely re-established in the form the 26th Dy, also known as Saite Period.
**Misc. everyday living facts:
**Language & Writing:
Late Egyptian Demotic came into use (a fully distinct variety of hieratic writing, with only a tenuous resemblance to hieroglyphs). It was primarily employed for administrative purposes, although some funerary books were prepared using it. It was designed to be written with a pen on papyrus, but there are also carved versions.
Literature included major mythological texts, which continued through the Late Period.
The Valley of the Kings accommodated royal tombs until the end of the 20th D. After this, around 1070 b.c., with the foundation of the 21st D, the capital of Egypt moved north to Tanis (San el-Hagar) in the delta. Tanis lies many miles from any place suitable for rock-cut monuments, and accordingly the new royal cemetery comprised of stone-built structures sunk just below the ground surface, and probably topped by chapels. These tombs were of extremely modest dimensions, containing at most a handful of chambers and generally decorated with books of the underworld.
The 25th D (the last part of the 3rd IP) saw increasingly fragmentation of Egypt, reversed only with the annexation of the country by the Egytianized rulers of Sudan (Kush). Although buried in their home country, these kings briefly resumed the use of pyramids, albeit of the stepply angled type used the 17th D kings, and later nobles, at Thebes.
(note to self: only major period on timeline, not dynasties)