Late Period (525 B.C.-332 B.C.)
Includes 27th through 31st Dynasties. The dates of any king’s rule are subjective, as rules were counted by regal years, not by era dating.
27th Dynasty (525 b.c.-405 b.c.)
Mesutire (Kambyses [Kembitjet]- 525-522)
Setutre (Darious I [Intiryosh]- 521- 486)
? (Xerxes I [Khashyarsha]- 486-465)
? (Artaxerxes I [Artakheshes]- 465-424)
? (Xerxes II- 424)
? (Darios II- 423-405)
28th Dynasty (404 b.c.-399 b.c.)
King ? (Amenirdis- 404-399)
29th Dynasty (399 b.c.-380 b.c.)
Kings Baenre-merynetjeru (Nayfarud I- 399-393)
Userre-setpenptah (Pashermut- 393)
Khnemmaetre (Hakar- 393-380)
? (Nayfarud II- 380)
30th Dynasty (380 b.c.-342 b.c.)
Kings Kheperkare (Nakhtnebef- 380-362)
Irimaetenre (Teos- 362-360)
Senedjemibre-setpenhur (Nakhthorheb- 360-342)
31st Dynasty (342 b.c.- 332 b.c.)
Kings Artaxerxes III Okhos (342-338)
Darios III (335-332)
The Late Period was dominated by a struggle for independence from the Persian Empire. Three native dynasties in turn wrested control, but all were finally defeated by the Persians- who were themselves overthrown by Alexander the Great. With the dissolution of Alexander’s empire, Egypt came under the rule of the Macedonian Ptolemaic Dy for some three centuries.
**Misc. everyday living facts:
**Language & Writing:
Late Egyptian. (Middle & Late Egyptian continued to be used for monumental texts into the Roman Period.) Late Egyptian Demotic used (a fully distinct variety of hieratic writing, with only a tenuous resemblance to hieroglyphs). It was primarily employed for administrative purposes, although some funerary books were prepared using it. It was designed to be written with a pen on papyrus, but there are also carved versions.
The various scripts of the Egyptian language remained unchallenged in Egypt until the end of the Late Period, when the country fell under the yoke of foreign empires. With the influx of Greek settlers and with the ruling class becoming composed of Greeks, Greek writing became widely used. It served with demotic as the main administrative medium, and appeared alongside it and hieroglyphic text on a number of monumental decrees.
Literature included major mythological texts, which continued through the Late Period