Middle Kingdom (2066 B.C.- 1650 B.C.)
Includes Dynasties 11b through 14th. The dates of any king’s rule are subjective, as rules were counted by regal years, not by era dating.
The first kings of the 11th D ruled southern Egypt only. They ruled from their capital of Thebes. Later monarchs reunified the nation.
Dynasty 11b (2066 b.c.-1994 b.c.)
Kings Nebhepetre (Montjuhotpe II- 2066-2014)
Sankhkare (Montjuhotpe III- 2014-2001)
Nebtawyre (Montjuhotpe IV- 2001-1994)
12th Dynasty (1994 b.c.- 1781 b.c.)
Kings Sehetepibre (Amenemhat I- 1994-1964)- his own propaganda presented him as the founder of a new era, which would see Egypt restored to past glories. He also moved the capital of Egypt back to the north, to a city known as Itjtawi.
Kheperkare (Senwosret I- 1974-1929)
Nebkhaure (Amenemhat II- 1932-1896)
Khakheperre (Senwosret II- 1900-1880)
Khakaure (Senwosret III- 1881-1840)
Nimaetre (Amenemhat III- 1842-1794)
Maekherure (Amenemhat IV- 1798-1785)
Sobkkare (Sobkneferu- 1785-1781)
13th Dynasties (1781 b.c.-1650 b.c.)
The 13th D comprises a long series of monarchs who reigned for only short periods. Ultimately, the 13th D was to end with the takeover of northern Egypt by the “Hyksos” 15th D of Palestinian origin, an area ruled first by the Palestinian 14th D. The Hyksos 15th D seems to have violently displaced the earlier line c. 1650.
Kings Sekhemre-khutawi (Sobkhotpe I- 1781-?)
Sekhemkare (Sonbef- ?)
Nerikare (?- ?)
Sekhemkare (Amenemhat V- ?)
Sehetepibre (Qemau- ?)
Sankhibre (Amenemhat VI- ?)
Smenkare (Nebnuni- ?)
? (Iufeni- ?)
Hotepibre (Sihornedjhiryotef- ?)
Khaankhre (Sobkhotpe II- ?)
Sekhemre-khutawi (Renisonbe- ?)
Auibre (Hor- ?)
Sedjefakare (Amenemhat VII- ?)
Khutawire (Wegaf- ?)
Userkare/Nikhanimaetre (Khendjer- ?)
Smenkhkare (Imyromesha- ?)
Sehotepkare (Inyotef IV- ?)
Meryibre (Seth (y) - ?)
Sekhemre-swadjtawi (Sobkotpe III- ?)
Khasekhemre (Neferhotpe I- ?)
Menwadjre (Sihathor- ?)
Khaneferr (Sobkhotpe IV- ?)
Merhotepre (Sobkhotpe V- ?)
Khahetepre (Sobkhotpe VI- ?)
Wahibre (Iaib- ?)
Memeferre (Iy- ?)
Merhetepre (Ini- ?)
Sankhenre (Sewadjtu- ?)
Mersekhemre (Ined- ?)
Sewadjkare (Hori- ?)
Merkaure (Sobkhotpe VII- ?)
Mershepsesre (Ini- ?)
Mersekhemre (Neferhotpe II- ?)
[5 unknown kings]
Mer[…]re (?- ?)
Merkheperre (?- ?)
Merkare (?- ?)
? (?- ?)
Sewadjare (Montjuhotpe V- ?)
[…]mesre (?- ?)
[…]maetre (Ibi- ?)
[…]webenre (Hor[…]- ?)
Se[…]kare (?- ?)
Seheqaenre (Sankhptahi- ?)
Sekhaenre ([…]s- ?)
Sewahenre (Senebmiu- ?-1650)
Began with unity brought on by civil war. These dynasties recommenced major public works and trade, but royal power decayed under the 13th Dynasty. Palestinian rulers appeared in the north-east delta, and eventually obtained control of the north of Egypt-and then, briefly, the whole country.
**Misc. everyday living facts:
**Language & Writing:
Transition to Middle Egyptian, which started during the 1st Intermediate Period. Early on in Egyptian history, a distinct handwritten version of the hieroglyphic script developed, known today as hieratic. In its early phases, hieratic was little more than a simplification of the underlying signs. But by the Middle and New Kingsdoms, it took on various distinctive attributes. Hieratic script was used for a vast range of religious and domestic purposes (on papyri, stone, pottery).
Literature included coffin texts (written on the interiors of wooden coffins and designed to aid the dead person’s journey into the next world. This was envisioned as being to the west of the world of the living, and to reach it the dead had to endure many dangers), stories, and wisdom texts. An autobiography surviving from this period gives us one of our most comprehensive accounts of the kind of ‘passion play’ that formed part of the some religious festivals. In this play, the story of the life, death, resurrection, and vindication of the god were re-enacted.
The move of power to Thebes meant that the first kings of the 11th D were buried in the cemeteries that lay across the river from the Theban temples. Though the kingdom was reunited, later monarchs continued to be buried at this location. The 11th D kings were mostly buried in tombs- while they had locations for offerings, sections for members of the court, and a burial chamber, that actual pyramid structure was missing.
The first king of the 12th D has a pyramid (of poor quality). Blocks from old pyramids were reused, though it is unknown if this was a sign of economy or of trying to tie the pharaoh to the great “glorious past” of Egypt. Later 12th D pyramids maintained the basic concepts: pyramid, mortuary temple, causeway, and valley building- the actual execution was much different (pyramids built of mud brick, entrance moved to the south side, burial chamber shifted away from center of monument, and “construction shaft” with a false tomb).
The 13th D had a series of short-term ruling monarchs with very few known burial places, leaving us guessing at the evolution of architecture during this period of time.