New Kingdom (1549 B.C.- 1064 B.C.)
_ Includes 18th through 20th Dynasties. The dates of any king’s rule are subjective, as rules were counted by regal years, not by era dating.
Second Intermediate Period ended when Palestinians were driven out by the kings of Thebes (the main centre of the south), who then founded the 18th Dynasty and the New Kingdom.
18th Dynasty (1549 b.c.-1298 b.c.)
Kings Nebpehtire (Ahmose I- 1549-1524)
Djeserkare (Amenhotep I- 1524-1503)
Akheperkare (Thutmose I- 1503-1491)
Akheperenre (Thutmose II- 1491-1479)
Menkheper(en)re (Thutmose III- 1479-1424)
Maetkare (Hatshepsut- 1472-1457)- probably joint reign by son who died first
Akheperure (Amenhotep II- 1424-1398)
Menkheperure (Thutmose IV- 1398-1388)
Nebmaetre (Amenhotep III (1388-1348)
Neferkheperure-waenre (Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten- 1360-1343)
Ankhkheperure (Smenkhkare- 1346)
Ankhkheperure-merwaenre (Neferneferuaten- 1346-1343)
Nebkheperre (Tutankhamun- 1343-1333)
Kheperkheperure (Ay- 1333-1328)
Djeserkheperure-setpenre (Horemheb- 1328-1298)
19th Dynasty (1298 b.c.-1187 b.c.)
Kings Menpehtire (Ramses I- 1298-1296)
Menmaetre (Sethy I- 1296-1279)
Usermaetre-setpenre (Ramses II- 1279-1212)
Banenre (Merenptah- 1212-1201)
Userkheperure (Sethy II- 1201-1195)
Menmire-setpenre (Amenmesse- 1200-1196)- probably joint reign by son who died first
Sekhaenre/Akheperre (Siptah- 1195-1189)
Sitre-merenamun (Tawosret- 1189-1187)
20th Dynasty (1187 b.c.-1064 b.c.)
Kings Userkhaure (Sethnakhte- 1187-1185)
Usermaetre-meryamun (Rameses III- 1185-1153)
User/Heqamaetre-setpenamun (Rameses IV- 1153-1146)
Usermaetre-sekheperenre (Rameses V/Amenhirkopshef II- 1141-1133)
Usermaetre-setpenre-meryamun (Rameses VII Itamun- 1133-1125)
Usermaetre-akhenamun (Rameses VIII Sethhirkopshef- 1125-1123)
Neferkare-setpenre (Rameses IX Khaemwaset I- 1123-1104)
Khepermaetre-setpenre (Rameses X Amenhirkopshef III- 1104-1094)
Menmaetre-setpenptah (Rameses XI Khaemwaset II- 1094-1064)
Hemnetjertepyenamun (Hribor- 1075-1069)- probably joint reign by son who died first.
Period began with the kings of Thebes (main centre in the south) drove out the Palestinians, and founded the 18th Dynasty and the New Kingdom. This included the reunification of Egypt around 1550 b.c. The first king if the 18th D was Ahmose I, who was responsible for the final expulsion of the Palestinian Hyksos 15th D and the re-establishment of royal power.
This was Egypt’s imperial age, during which it obtained overlord-ship over much of Syria, Palestine, and the northern part of Sudan. The height of Egyptian power came under Amenhotep III (9th P of 18th D). A brief official experiment with monotheism under Akhenaten was rapidly ended under his successor Tutankhamun. During the 19th Dy, wealth and power began gradually to seep away, exacerbated by conflicts within the royal family. By the end of the 20th Dy, economic problems and civil strife had set in, and the succeeding 3rd IP started.
**Misc. everyday living facts:
From this point forward, the journey of the spirit of the deceased was a fairly static version believed by most people. It involved overcoming the obstacles placed in its way by the guardians of the various gates that lay between it and its goal, the “Hall of Judgment.” Here, Osiris, King of the Dead, presided over the weighing of the deceased’s heart- regarded as the seat of intelligence and knowledge- against the feather of maat, the personification of truth, order, and justice. If the pans of the scale balanced, the dead person would come before Osiris and pass into life eternal. If the heart proved heavier, it would be fed to a monster named ‘the Devourer’ and the spirit cast into darkness. However, the magical ‘guidebooks’ supplied the deceased- the most well-known being the ‘Book of the Dead’ contained spells guaranteeing the spirit success in its great journey.
**Language & Writing:
Middle Egyptian transition to Late Egyptian. Early on in Egyptian history, a distinct handwritten version of the hieroglyphic script developed, known today as hieratic. In its early phases, hieratic was little more than a simplification of the underlying signs. But by the Middle and New Kingsdoms, it took on various distinctive attributes. Hieratic script was used for a vast range of religious and domestic purposes (on papyri, stone, pottery).
Literature included the Book of the Dead (an extension of the coffin texts which now was a complete guidebook to the journey after death…usually inscribed on illustrated papyrus, though also found on coffins and walls of the tomb) as well as “historical” texts. Warrior’s autobiographies from the early years of 18th D provide useful details to scholars. The largest body of historical texts come from this period, but one must remember that these “histories” often have an explicit propagandistic purpose, and must be viewed in this light.
The process of mummification reached its peak during this time, with the most perfect results achieved. The process involved the removal from the body of all the internal organs- except heart and kidneys- and its desiccation using a dry powder known as ‘natron.’ This was a mixture of salts, in particular sodium chloride (common salt), plus sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, and sodium sulphate. They were piled upon a stone slab, the corpse laid on top, and then covered with further natron. After a number of weeks, the body was extracted and wrapped in bandages, as were the also-dessicated internal organs. The body was then placed in the coffin and the organs in the so-called ‘canopic’ contaniners: four jars and/or a chest.
The reunification of Egypt around 1550 b.c. marked a major change in royal funerary practices, which would soon end 1,000 years of pyramid-building (one final pyramid was erected by the first king of the 18th D) for the tombs of Egyptian kings, although there would be a short-lived revival some eight centuries later. The pyramids had become a tourist destination as early as the 18th Dy. Early in the next dynasty, Prince Khaemwaset, High Priest of Ptah, and son of Ramses II, undertook antiquarian investigations and carving the name of the pyramids founder on the casings of a number of pyramids.
Successive pharaohs built a separate burial chamber and offering place. The offering place was set near the desert edge at Thebes- in the form of a large mortuary temple-, while the substructure lay over a kilometer away behind a curtain of cliffs in what has become known as the Valley of the Kings. While there were galleries going deep into the bedrock bearing decoration, there was no actual superstructure (pyramid).